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X-Cube technology

X-Cube Technology

Advanced package

In this new era of high performance computing and networking, designers are confronted with greater SOC integration challenges to meet system performance requirements. As a result, new packaging technologies and business models are being developed and deployed to overcome these limitations while offering customers a broader portfolio breadth for optimal cost of ownership (or price/performance ratios).

Customers can choose one of our flexible business models to procure the package solution:
  • Handoff Model: COT (Customer Owned Tooling), COPD (Customer Owned Physical Design)
  • Customers can choose from Samsung Foundry packaging offerings or those offered by our performance OSAT partners such as Amkor
Samsung Foundry's CUBE technology includes:
  • I-Cube: 2.5D Si-Interposer
  • X-Cube: 3DIC Logic Interposer
  • R-Cube: 2.5D RDL Interposer
  • H-Cube: Hybrid Interposer
I-Cube™ is Samsung's 2.5D Si Interposer technology that
horizontally connects logic devices with HBM (High Bandwidth Memory) modules.
  • Finer pitch
  • ISC, MIM in Si interposer
  • CoS: Low-cost with interim test
  • CoW: More HBM modules

The 300-mm TSV-bearing Silicon (Si) interposer wafer is manufactured by Samsung Foundry. There are two assembly processes depending on what format of Si interposer is being used: Chip on Substrate (CoS) or Chip on Wafer (CoW). In CoS, the Si interposer chip comes from a back-grinded and sawed Si interposer wafer. The chip is assembled on the package substrate. And then, the logic devices and HBM modules are mounted on top of it. In CoW, the logic devices and HBM modules are mounted on the back-grinded Si interposer wafer by following the wafer-level molding, grinding and sawing, and then the molded Si interposer die with devices is mounted on the package substrate. There is a major benefit with CoS: interim testing. Interim testing are for helping not to mount any faulted interposer or logic chips before HBM modules are mounted. There is a major benefit with CoW: larger. A larger Si interposer can be used for CoW. CoS helps to develop low-cost 2.5D packages and CoW helps to develop 2.5D packages with more HBM modules. Samsung Foundry has successfully qualified I-Cube™ which is available in a wide range of interposer sizes, HBM modules, and package sizes. Today, the 2.5D packages with 2x (1,600mm2) Si interposer integrating advanced logic chip and up to four HBM modules are fully qualified and available for production. Larger 2.5D packages with larger Si interposer integrating more than 4 HBM modules and 300nF/mm2 ISC™ (Integrated Stack Capacitor) are in development.

R-Cube™ is Samsung’s low-cost 2.5D RDL Interposer technology that connects logic to logic and logic with HBM (High Bandwidth Memory) modules by high density RDL (Re Distribution Layer).
  • Low cost
  • TSV-less
  • Fast turn-around-time
  • Better signal and power integrity
  • Greater design flexibility

R-Cube™ is RDL first process known as “chip last”. Normally RDL layers are manufactured onto the carrier at the beginning of R-Cube™ process. By manufacturing the layers last, we achieve a faster Total Around Time (TAT) when compared to the chip first process. Additionally, by making the RDL later the known good ASIC and HBM could be mounted onto the RDL layer. There is a major benefit to an RDL interposer in that it is a low cost option as it a TSV-less solution. Also, RDL interposer shows much better SerDes Signal integrity (SI) due to extremely small signal via dimension and better Memory SI due to RDL metal thickness. Furthermore, the Low-loss dielectric materials used help achieve less dielectric losses. Also, RDL interposer provides more design flexibility for less routing interference with fine line width and line spacing. Samsung Foundry is developing a 2.5D TSV-less RDL interposer technology with a line and space width of 2/2um and a large interposer (~1600mm2) integrating 4 HBM modules.

X-Cube™ is Samsung's 3DIC that stacks dies and wafers using Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology.
  • Higher density integration
  • Greater scaling in size
  • Lower latency
  • Higher bandwidth
  • Solder CoW: production proven
X-Cube™ leverages three key technologies: Chip on Wafer (CoW), Wafer on Wafer (WoW) and Through Silicon Via (TSV).
  • CoW stacks thin chips on top of a thinned wafer.
  • WoW stacks a wafer on a thinned wafer.
  • TSV vertically interconnects top and bottom chips and wafers.

The combination of these three technologies allows for higher density integration, greater scaling in size, improved power efficiency and lower latency. Samsung is in a leading position to offer highly reliable and competitive micro-bump 3DIC products such as High Bandwidth Memory (HBM) and CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) products. Samsung Foundry has implemented high bandwidth and low latency SRAM interface between 7LPP logic die and 7LPP SRAM die utilizing micro-bump CoW technology and logic TSV PDK for low power 3DIC applications such as AI inference. In addition our expertise and rapid high volume manufacturing allows us to secure high yield production at an early stage. We are ready for mass production based on micro-bump CoW and TSV for low power 3DIC applications. A bumpless hybrid Die to Wafer (D2W) technology is in development.

H-Cube™ consists of a fine-pitch substrate on top of a module
substrate and is for developing large and low-cost packages.
  • Cost-effective
  • Larger package size
  • Greater scaling in size
  • Greater integration flexibility

H-Cube™ consists of an interposer, a fine-pitch substrate and a module substrate. Samsung Foundry developed this solution to provide a cost-effective hybrid ( Multi Chip Module, 2.5D, 5.5D) solution in a large package size. The BGA ball pitch of a fine-pitch substrate is reduced from 1mm down to 0.4mm (or less ) to make it smaller and more cost effective: the price of a small size of the substrate is less than that of a big size. The module substrate placed underneath the fine-pitch substrate, has a large size (up to 200x200mm2) and is less costly than a fine-pitch substrate due to relaxed specifications. There are 3 major benefits on H-Cube™: cost-effectiveness, large package size and greater integration flexibility. The hybrid substrate is more cost effective than a single fine-pitch substrate for the same package size. The large package size allows for greater expansion as a function of the number of I/O or the additional components such as capacitors, PMIC, GDDR etc. Samsung Foundry is developing a large hybrid package size (85x85mm2) solution with a large silicon interposer that integrates 6 HBM modules.